There are four main types of HVAC systems. There are split systems, hybrid systems, ductless systems, and packaged heating and air systems. Each of these types of HVAC units has advantages and disadvantages, and knowing these factors can help you decide which one is best for you. Split heating and cooling systems are the most common types of HVAC systems used in residential buildings.
They consist of two separate components, one for heating and the other for cooling, and they use a traditional thermostat to control the temperature of the entire structure. In most buildings with split systems, the heating unit is located in a basement, service closet, or other indoor storage space. The heater runs on gas and uses an evaporator or fan to push heat through the building's ducts. On the other hand, the cooling system is located outside and is connected to the ducts of a building through a series of tubes.
It uses compressors, coils and refrigerant to create cold air, and a fan directs warm air out and away from the building. A hybrid split HVAC system has the same structure and cooling unit as a split system, but it doesn't rely solely on gas to generate heat. While your heater can burn gas, it can also switch to electric power. Electric heating is typically slower and less powerful than gas-powered heating, but this option gives building owners more control over their building's energy consumption and can help reduce energy costs in milder climates.
Packaged heating and cooling systems are less common than split systems, but their smaller size makes them more suitable for small buildings that lack additional storage space. The heating and cooling components are housed in a single unit and are typically stored on a roof, in an attic, or near the foundation of the building. Packaged HVAC systems are connected to the supply and return ducts of a building, often through a single hole in the wall. Depending on the climate, building owners may choose to install a packaged heat pump containing the evaporator coils or an air conditioner packaged with an air controller with optional thermal band elements.
Both systems cost less to install than split systems and are easier to maintain. Ductless minisplit systems are installed in individual rooms and are common elements in multi-family homes, office buildings and hotel rooms. Also known as mini-split systems, these electrical units include an outdoor compressor and condenser, a refrigerant, an indoor air treatment unit, a heat pump, power cables and a thermostat for each zone. Copper tubes connect interior and exterior components, and a compressor can be connected to up to nine indoor air handling units.
If you've done an energy efficiency assessment of your home, perhaps installed some additional insulation and are hiring a professional in heating or cooling systems, now is the time to decide on the right HVAC system for your home. Single-stage heating and cooling are popular in colder winter climates and in warm and humid areas, respectively, because the systems are configured to provide comfort during the coldest or hottest days of the year. But that also means that, most of the time, these heating systems or air conditioners operate at full capacity when not needed. That's where a multi-stage system comes in handy and can save you energy and money.
Zoned HVAC systems can heat or cool individual areas of your home by controlling zone valves or zone dampers inside vents or ducts, which selectively block airflow. Zoned systems can save you energy and money by heating or cooling certain areas only when you need it. Humidifiers and dehumidifiers can be added as options to heating and cooling systems, and if you live in a very dry or humid climate, these improvements should definitely be on your list. Around 50 percent relative humidity is considered optimal for humans.
In the U.S., modern conventional heating systems can achieve efficiencies of up to 97 percent, converting almost all fuel into useful heat for your home. Radiant floors, or hydronic heating systems, often use pipes under the floor. Flexible tubes are filled with water or a glycol solution to heat a concrete floor or other type of soil. These can be very efficient and require a boiler or heat pump.
And they can be reconditioned, if carefully installed under the wooden floor covering. However, radiant systems are much more effective if they are integrated into a concrete floor, as they will retain heat and release it slowly. Excess radiators can also be removed. Modulating aquastats for hot water boilers adjust the hot water temperature to outside temperatures and can save 10 percent on fuel costs.
In addition, a delay relay for hot water boilers causes hot water to flow through the system without turning on the boiler. An oil-fueled system can also benefit from a barometric smoke damper that prevents too much heat from rising through the chimney. The Department of Energy provides more details on options for modernizing oil and gas systems. HVAC systems are milestones in the construction of mechanical systems that provide thermal comfort to occupants along with indoor air quality.
HVAC systems can be classified into central and local systems according to multiple zones, location and distribution. The main HVAC equipment includes heating equipment, ventilation equipment, and refrigeration or air conditioning equipment. Central HVAC systems are located far from buildings in a central equipment room and supply air conditioning through a system of supply ducts. Central HVAC systems contain air, water and water systems.
Two systems should be considered central, such as heating and cooling panels and heat pumps with water source. Local HVAC systems can be located inside or next to a conditioned area, without the need for ducts. Local systems include local heating, local air conditioning, local ventilation and split systems. A central air split system is one of the most popular systems out there, making it a good choice for many residential homes.
However, if your home doesn't have ducts, getting a central air system also means installing ducts throughout the house, which increases labor and total cost substantially. To help you determine which heating or cooling system is best for you, we'll review the most common types of HVAC systems and explain how each one works. In a single-zone all-aerial HVAC system, a control device, such as a thermostat located in the zone, controls the operation of the system, as shown in Figure 4.A single-stage HVAC system is operating at full capacity and is therefore “on” or not working at all and is therefore “off”. Today's air conditioning systems come in different sizes and types, and what you decide to add or upgrade in your home depends on the systems you already have, as well as the climate.
Central heating and air conditioning systems use a network of air ducts to distribute air conditioning throughout the building. If you've ever lived or worked in extreme temperatures, chances are you've encountered some type of HVAC system. The standard split system, with an outdoor component and an indoor component, is still the most popular residential HVAC system today. In addition, since ductless systems use inverter-driven compressors, they react much better to the real needs of the system and don't shut down completely like a traditional HVAC unit, which can use up a lot of energy every time it is started up again.
Whether you're installing a new HVAC system or need a temporary temperature control solution for your workplace, there's an HVAC system that can meet your needs. After completing the HVAC installation, it's in your best interest to protect your investment by scheduling annual maintenance with the HVAC contractor of your choice. Mobile homes and prefabricated homes tend to have different heating and cooling needs than other types of homes. Having a powerful and efficient HVAC system is essential depending on where you live, because mobile homes are not usually as well insulated as houses built with rods.
Because all components are outdoors, exposed to the elements, they tend to wear out faster than other heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems. This home heating and cooling buying guide will help you start the HVAC installation project by providing you with the common technical terms and meanings associated with each system, the average costs, and the most suitable unit for your home. HVAC zoning systems allow occupants greater control over the temperature in rooms or separate areas of a building. .